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GREAT 

^LESTINE 

AND THE 
JEWS 



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JRGE H. DORAN COMPANY, Publishers, New York 



Walter Clinton Jackson Library 

The University of North Carolina at Greensboro 

Special Collections & Rare Books 



World War I Pamphlet Collection 



/ 



; 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/greatbritainpaleOOunse 



GREAT BRITAIN, PALESTINE AND THE JEWS 



Great Britain, 
Palestine and the Jews 

Jewry's Celebration of 
Its National Charter 




NEW YORK 
GEORGE H. DORAN COMPANY 



7 ^7 



COPYRIGHT, 1918, 
BY GEORGE H. DORAN COMPANY 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



PREFACE 

The Declaration by the British Government in 
favour of the establishment in Palestine of a 
National Home for the Jewish people constitutes the 
greatest event in the history of the Jews since their 
dispersion. The manner in which this Declaration 
has been received and celebrated in Jewish communi- 
ties both here and abroad has been marked by bound- 
less enthusiasm and overflowing gratitude. 

But for the fact that the world is stiU groaning 
under the scourge of war the rej oicings by the Jew- 
ish people would doubtless have assumed a much 
more imposing and jubilant character. But the 
record presented in this publication shows that the 
House of Israel is fully conscious of the high signifi- 
cance of the pledge of the British Government con- 
cerning its restoration. 

This pamphlet is intended to give a brief and com- 
prehensive survey of the various forms of celebra- 
tion in Jewry in honour of the promulgation of the 
British Charter of Zionism. It is inevitably con- 
fined to the events and utterances of the first few 
weeks following the publication of Mr. Balfour's 



vi Preface 

historic letter, ana cannot therefore include an ade- 
quate account of the celebrations in other lands. 
But it is worthy of note that in addition to the 
countless secular celebrations, the synagogues also 
took cognisance of the Government declaration. 

Although a political document, Mr. Balfour's 
letter proclaims the forthcoming fulfilment of what 
has always been a religious ideal in Jewry; and it 
was therefore but right that the letter should have 
been read in numerous synagogues during the Sab- 
bath service and formed the text of countless ser- 
mons. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Resolutions, Statements, and Messages of 

Zionist Organisations 11 

Resolutions of Other Jewish Organisations 23 

Views of Jewish Leaders 29 

Public Demonstrations 37 

Press Comment 89 



vii 



RESOLUTIONS, STATEMENTS AND MESSAGES 

OF ZIONIST ORGANISATIONS 



THE CHARTER OF ZIONISM 



LETTER FROM THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT 

The following are the terms of (lie letter to Lobd 
Rothschild in which Mr. A. J. Balfoub, Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, declared the sympathy of (he 
British Government with Zionist aspirations and its fa- 
vourable attitude towards the establishment in Palestine of 
a national home for the Jewish people: 

Foreign Office, 

November 2, 1917. 
Dear Lord Rothschild, — I have much pleasure in 
conveying to you on behalf of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment the following Declaration of sympathy with Jew- 
ish Zionist aspirations, which has been submitted to 
and approved by the Cabinet: 

" His Majesty's Government view with favour the 
establishment in Palestine of a national home for the 
Jewish people, end will use their best endeavours to 
facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly 
understood that nothing shall be done which may preju- 
dice the civil and religious rights of existing non- Jewish 
commimities in Palestine or the rights and political status 
enjc^ed by Jews in any o&er country." 

I should be grateful if you would bring this Declara- 
tion to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. 
Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR 



GREAT BRITAIN, PALESTINE 
AND THE JEWS 



RESOLUTIONS, STATEMENTS AND MESSAGES 
OF ZIONIST ORGANISATIONS^ 

ENGLISH ZIONIST FEDERATION 

The Pronouncement of the British Government 
was received with enthusiasm and expressions of pro- 
found gratitude by Zionist Organisations in all the 
principal Jewish centres of the world. The English 
Zionist Federation held a special meeting three days 
after the date of Mr. Balfour's letter, and unani- 
mously adopted the following resolution : 

"Resolved that the Executive Council of the 
English Zionist Federation has received with heart- 
felt joy and thanks the report of Dr. Weizmann, 
the President, on the issue of a Declaration by His 
Majesty's Government in support of the establish- 
ment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish 
people, and that it sincerely congratulates the Presi- 
dent on having, in conjunction with Mr. Sokolow, 
brought about this most momentous achievement 
towards the realisation of the national aspirations 
of the Jewish people. 

11 



12 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

"Further, that the Executive Council begs the 
hon. officers to convey to His Majesty's Govern- 
ment, on behalf of the English Zionist Federation, 
an expression of the respectful and profound senti- 
ments of gratitude evoked among English Zionists 
by this historic act in the national liberation of 
the Jewish people, which will for ever shed lustre 
on the proud traditions of British statesmanship, 
justice, and liberty." 

THE UNITED STATES 

The gratitude felt by the British Zionists was 
equalled by that felt and expressed by their col- 
leagues in the United States. The Provisional Zion- 
ist Committee of New York described the Declara- 
tion of the British Government as marking an epoch 
in Jewish history. "The wise and magnanimous 
purpose of His Majesty's Government to use its 
best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of the 
Zionist aim is in consonance with the policy of the 
British nation respecting the Jews. It is in con- 
sonance with the policy of the liberation and pro- 
tection of small nationalities, which the Entente 
Powers, including our own Government, have deter- 
mined shall prevail throughout the world." 

At a Zionist Conference, held in Baltimore, the 
following resolution was carried unanimously; 

"This conference, convened by the Provisional 
Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, do 



Russia 13 

offer Dr. Chaim Weizmann and Mr. Nahum Sokolow 
its deep-felt congratulations on the part they have 
had in these negotiations with the British Govern- 
ment, which resulted in the British Declaration fa- 
vouring re-establishment in Palestine of a national 
home for the Jewish people, made by the Right Hon. 
Arthur J. Balfour on behalf of the British Cabinet. 
We ask our associates in London to convey to His 
Majesty's Government expressions of gratitude from 
the Jewish people for the Declaration, which is in 
consonance with the traditions of the British peo- 
ple and in keeping with the aims of Great Britain 
and her Allies in tliis war for liberation and justice. 
Deeply we rejoice in the triumph of British arms in 
Palestine, and the taking over of Palestine as an- 
other step in the march of the Allied Forces which 
is to establish throughout the world the principles 
of the invincible integrity of smaller nationalities. 
For these principles we and our Allies are prepared, 
to make every sacrifice of treasure and life, until 
the great war shall have ended in the triumph of 
the high aims of the Allied nations.'* 

RUSSIA, 

The Central Committee of the Zionist Organisation 
of Russia expressed the heartiest feelings and thanks 
of the Russian Zionists for the inspiring Declaration 
of His Majesty's Government "in favour of the 
establishment in Palestine of a national home for 
the Jewish people." 

"No more happy tidings could reach Russian 



14 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

Jewry than this timely expression by the British 
Government of its attitude towards Palestine, and 
we cannot sufficiently express the importance which 
we attach thereto. We regard this noble act as a 
landmark in Jewish history. . . . 

We find ourselves particularly fortunate that at 
this momentous time in the world's history the inter- 
ests of the British people and those of the Jewish 
nation should be identical. We also fervently hope 
and desire that the re-establishment of a Jewish home 
situated at the gateway of three continents and com- 
manding the world's chief arteries of communication 
will greatly facilitate the maintenance of interna- 
tional peace, and will serve the cultural ideals of man- 
kind. 

His Majesty's Government, in its noble and al- 
truistic declaration, makes mention that in the estab- 
lishment of a Jewish nation in Palestine the civil 
and religious rights of existing non-Jewish com- 
munities shall not be prejudiced. We Jews who have 
suffered injustice for so many hundreds of years 
will never be able to impose any form of inequality 
on peoples living in Palestine. Furthermore, the 
spirit of our traditions and teachings forces us to 
recognise the complete equality of all mankind. 

In the annals of Jewish history the sympathy 
and assistance rendered by the British Government 
in the regeneration of the Jewish nation can aever 



France 15 

be eradicated. In her great beneficence the British 
Government offered us Jews El-Arish in 1902. Then 
again she showed us her concrete desire to assist 
Jewish nationalism by her Uganda offer in 190B, 
As the highest evidence of the benevolence of His 
Majesty's Government we see that at this very 
moment, when her armies are triumphing in Palestine, 
she is not only offering this assistance towards the 
re-establishment of a Jewish home, but at the same 
time she is pledging her great political influence in 
this worthy undertaking. 

In the realisation of one of the greatest problems 
of the world — namely, the complete liberation of the 
most oppressed nation of all times — the British Gov- 
ernment will give certain evidence to posterity that 
the many sacrifices she has made in this disastrous 
struggle were not made in vain, but were made for 
the greater enlightenment of the world." 

FRANCE 

The F^d^ration Sioniste de France sent the British 
Government a message of congratulation on the oc- 
cupation of Jerusalem. They associated with that 
historic event the equally historic Declaration of the 
British Government in favour of a national home for 
the Jewish people in Palestine, and welcomed the 
advent of the promised day when the ancient people 
of the Book would, with the help of the glorious 



16 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

Allies, restore their ancient home on the beloved soil 
of their ancestors. 

HOLLAND 

At a meeting of the Netherlantls Zionist Federa- 
tion there was repeated applause at a reference to 
Mr. Balfour's statement of accord with Zionist aims 
which, said the President, had given great joy to 
almost the whole of Jewry. Mr. Jean Fischer said 
that the Declaration of the British Government re- 
garding Zionism was an historical fact of far-reach- 
ing significance. The British Government had earned 
the everlasting gratitude of the Jewish people. It 
was resolved to send the following telegram to the 
English Zionist Federation : "The eighteenth General 
Convention of the Netherlands Zionist Federation 
expresses its gratitude to the British Government for 
its sympathetic attitude towards Zionism, and for its 
Declaration that it will do its best to contribute to 
the fulfilment of the Zionist programme. — ^Lieme, 
President; Van Vkiesland, Secretary,*' 

GERMANY 
A German Zionist Conference, held in Berlin, 
adopted the following resolution: 

"The German Zionist Association greets with satis- 
faction the fact that the British Government has 
recognised in an official Declaration the right of the 
Jewish people to a national existence in Palestine.'* 



Switzerland 17 

A large number of other messages were received 
by the London Zionist Bureau from Zionist Organi- 
sations in all parts of the world. 

CANADA 

The Canadian Zionist Federation cabled : "Cordial 
greetings from Canadian Zionists. Overwhelming 
majority Canadian Jews hail with utmost enthusiasm 
and gratitude Declaration British Government re- 
garding Palestine and Jewish people. This Declara- 
tion is one of the most momentous in Jewish history. 
What Britain promises she will fulfil. The undying 
hopes for which Jews suffered martyrdom for 
twenty centuries will now be realised and Israel re- 
born. It means full accomplishment of Basle pro- 
gramme." 

SWITZERLAND 

From the Union of Swiss Zionists came: "The 
Swiss Zionist Federation having taken note, with 
the greatest satisfaction, of the Declaration of His 
Britannic Majesty's Government concerning the 
establishment in Palestine of a national home for 
the Jewish people, heartily congratulates you on the 
great success. The Declaration of Mr. Balfour 
coincides with our Zionist aims. We hope that all 
the nations of the world will support these aims and 
thereby in a like manner assure themselves of the 
deep gratitude of the Jewish people.'* 



18 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

BELGIUM 

The Belgian Zionist Federation, temporarily 
domiciled in the Hague, welcomed with enthusiasm 
"the important Declaration of His Britannic 
Majesty's Government to the Jewish people. It is 
deeply grateful to the magnanimity of His Britannic 
Majesty's Government for recognising the legiti- 
mate national aspirations of the Jewish people to 
Palestine and heartily congratulates you on the 
triumph which crowns the Zionist effort." 

SCANDINAVIA 
The Norwegian Zionist Federation's message ran: 

''Though small, Norway's Zionistic Jewry joins 
gladly the elder Zionist Associations the world over 
in congratulating you heartily on great success as 
recorded by Mr. Balfour's Declaration of willingness 
of British Government to fully endorse and assist 
realisation our Palestine hopes. We record joyfully 
this essential step forward, doubly welcome in times 
of tribulation, and trust in further crowning with 
success of all your endeavours." 

At Stockholm the Scandinavian Zionist Associa- 
tion held a crowded meeting at which an expres- 
sion of lively satisfaction was passed at the recent 
Declaration of His Majesty's Government regarding 
the future Jewish settlement in Palestine. A resolu- 



Salonica 19 

tion was passed unanimously welcoming the action of 
His Majesty's Government and binding all present 
to use every effort to secure a national future for the 
Jewish people. 

SALONICA 

The Committee of the Jewish Congress in Salonica 
sent a message to the following effect: 

"Le Comite du Congres juif de Salonique a re^u 
avec une joie indioible communication de la declara- 
tion faite par le gouvemement de Sa Majeste Bri- 
tannique relativement a la reconstitution de la 
nationalite juive en Palestine; son Amotion est grande 
de voir les aspirations nationales du peuple juif re- 
cevoir une consecration aussi eclatante qui lui est 
donnee aujourd'hui par la grande et liberale nation 
anglaise. Les Israelites de Salonique comrauniant 
avec le judaisme universel expriment au gouveme- 
ment de Sa Majeste Britannique leur profonde recon- 
naissance et forment des voeux chaleureux pour le 
triomphe final du droit, de la justice et du principe 
des nationahtes si vaillarament defendus par I'Angle- 
terre et ses Allies." 



RESOLUTIONS OF OTHER JEWISH 
ORGANISATIONS 



RESOLUTIONS OF OTHER JEWISH 
ORGANISATIONS 

JEWISH TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION 

At a meeting of the British Headquarters' Coun- 
cil of the Jewish Territorial Organisation it was 
unanimously resolved to welcome the statement of 
the Government expressing sympathy with Jewish 
aspirations, and the Jewish Territorial Organisa- 
tion, "founded to procure a territory upon an au- 
tonomous basis for those Jews who cannot, or will 
not, remain in the lands in which they at present 
live," declared its readiness to co-operate with the 
Zionists in devising a scheme for the development of 
Palestine in accordance with its programme. 

JEWISH BOARD OP DEPUTIES 

A meeting of the Jewish Board of Deputies 
adopted the following resolution: 

^'That this Board desires to convey its grateful 
thanks to His Majesty's Government for its sym- 
pathetic interest in the Jews as manifested by the 
letter addressed to Lord Rothschild by the Right 
Hon. Arthur J. Balfour, dated November 2^ 1917, 
which has been published in the Press.'* 
23 



24 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

ANGLO-JEWISH ASSOCIATION 

At a special meeting of the Council of the Anglo- 
Jewish Association it was resolved: 

*'That the Council of the Anglo-Jewish Associa- 
tion desires to convey its grateful thanks to His 
Majesty's Government for its sympathetic interest 
in the Jews, as manifested by the letter of the Right 
Hon. Arthur J. Balfour, dated November S, 1917, 
addressed to Lord Rothschild, and pubhshed in the 
Press." 

THE ORDER OF B'NAI B'RITH 

At a meeting of the London Lodge of the Order 
the following resolution was adopted: 

"That the First Lodge of England of the Inde- 
pendent Order of B'nai B'rith (Sons of the Cove- 
nant) conveys to His Majesty's Government an ex- 
pression of heartfelt gratitude for their Declaration 
in favour of the establishment in Palestine of a 
national home for the Jewish people, and assures 
His Majesty's Government that their historic action 
has been received with profound appreciation by all 
sections of the Jewish community as the crowning 
evidence of the goodwill entertained by Britain 
towards the Jewish people.'* 

In addition to the resolutions adopted by the fore- 
going leading organisations, resolutions in a similar 
strain have been passed by a very large number of 
Jewish Communal Councils, Congregational Com- 



Greece 25 

mittees, Literary Societies, Friendly Benefit Societies, 
Trade Unions, etc., in all parts of the United King- 
dom. 

RUSSIA 

Greetings on the occasion of the Declaration of 
the British Government supporting the establish- 
ment of a Jewish national home in Palestine arrived 
at Zionist headquarters in Petrograd from all parts 
of the country. The council of the Jewish com- 
munity in Moscow, which has been elected for the 
first time on the basis of universal suffrage, carried, 
at an extraordinary meeting, a resolution in which 
they regarded it as their joyful duty to hail the 
initiative of the British Government, and expressed 
their firm conviction that the British Government's 
Declaration would call forth a most lively response, 
as well as the greatest effort on the part of the whole 
of Jewry. 

GREECE 

The publication by the Press of Athens of the 
Declaration made by Mr. Balfour aroused the utmost 
enthusiasm among the Jews of Greece. Dr. CofHnas, 
who is a member of the Chamber of Deputies, paid a 
visit to Lord Granville, the British Minister, to con- 
vey the gratitude of his co-religionists to that nation 
whom a Divine mission had inspired to deliver the 
holy places from the yoke of barbarians. 



26 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

MM. David Florentin and Joseph Usiel, on behalf 
of the Zionist Societies and the entire Jewish popula- 
tion of Salonika, sent the following telegram to Dr. 
Weizmann and M. N. Sokolow: 

"Fortified in the millenary hope for the national 
resurrection, consequent on the deliverance of Jeru- 
salem and the whole of Southern Palestine, we beg 
you to convey to the Government of His Britannic 
Majesty our profound gratitude for its historic 
Declaration concerning the restoration of our people 
on its ancestral soil, and our most ardent wishes for 
the decisive triumph of the English and Allied arms, 
and the realisation, without restrictions, of the noble 
promises that the British Government has made to 
the Zionist Organisation of which you are in England 
the valiant champions." 

MOROCCO 

Representative Jewish residents of Tangier ex- 
pressed on behalf of the whole Jewish population of 
Morocco their highest appreciation and heartfelt 
gratitude for the action of the British Government 
in Palestine. The Jews of Morocco, they said, were 
only lately freed from the political and social dis- 
advantages under which they had lived, and the 
promise of the British Government awakened new 
religious hopes and aspirations among that long- 
suffering and worthy people. 



VIEWS OF JEWISH LEADERS 



VIEWS OF JEWISH LEADERS 

In addition to the views expressed by Jewish 
leaders in the speeches reported in this pamphlet, 
the following opinions have been declared. 

Dr. Jechiel Tchlenow, Vice-President, Exec- 
utive CoTwmttee of the Zionist Organisation. 

The Declaration of His Majesty's Government 
has changed the aspect of our movement. We have 
now the promise of Great Britain — that traditional 
friend of small nations — to use its best endeavours 
to assist us in the establishment of a National Home 
for the Jewish people in Palestine. The World's 
History, and in particular Jewish history, will in- 
scribe in its pages this deed in letters of gold. 

THE RIGHT HON. HERBERT SAMUEL, M.P., 

I rejoice wholeheartedly in the pronouncement 
that has been made by the British Government with 
respect to Palestine. I support the policy because 
it will furnish to the genius of the Jewish race an 
opportunity of again giving to mankind a brilliant 
and distinctive civilisation, and secondly for the sake 
of the ennobling influence on the millions of the 
29 



30 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

Jewish proletariat who must continue to remain 
scattered throughout the countries of the world, 
which a successful Jewish Palestine could not fail to 



THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R^. 

I consider that the Declaration is the most impor- 
tant pronunciamento yet made, as it is the first 
recognition by a Great Power of the real status of 
the Jewish people, and that it ought therefore to find 
a wholehearted support from all Jews. I also con- 
sider it not only the first step towards restoring 
Palestine to its ancient prosperity, but also the first 
step in constructive policy necessitated by the war 
and its inevitable aftermath of necessary changes 
and reconstruction. 

THE RIGHT HON. SIR ALFRED MOND, Bart., M.P. 

Firtt Commissioner of Works 

The establishment in their old land, under the 
SBgis of the British Government, of a home where 
the Jewish people will be at liberty to develop their 
national genius and freely to exercise their virtues 
of industry, thrift, and organisation in their own 
way marks an epoch in the world's history. The 
development in recent years of the Jewish colonies 
in Palestine, whose success under the most unfavour- 
able and depressing conditions has been phenomenal. 



Mr. Nathan Straus 31 

has always deeply impressed me, and gives assurance 
of still greater success in the future. There are 
some who seem to think that the policy adopted 
is likely to damage the position of those Jews — and 
there must be many millions of them throughout the 
world — who will remain, as in the past, identified 
with and loyal and patriotic citizens of the coun- 
tries of their birth and residence, and that the estab- 
lishment of a national home in Palestine will, in 
particular, prejudice British Jews in the eyes of 
their fellow-citizens. I do not share and never 
have shared their view. In my opinion quite the 
reverse will be the case. The dignity and impor- 
tance of our whole race will be enhanced by the 
existence of a national home where those of our 
people v/ho have been compelled to live under less 
favourable conditions than we enjoy will be able to 
establish themselves on the soil of their ancestors. 

MR. NATHAN" STRAUS, New York 

My heartfelt congratulations upon the announce- 
ment of His Majesty's Government, made by Mr. 
Balfour. American Jews are deeply moved by the 
good tidings ; before our countries and their Allies 
lies th§ task of winning the war for liberation and 
justice and the sanctity of international relations, 
to the end that the sacredness of the right of small 
nations may never again be violated. This is the day 



B2 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

which the Lord hath made; let us be glad and re- 
joice therein. 

DR. STEPHEN S. WISE, Chairman Provisional Zionist 
Committee, New York 

The Declaration has transferred Zionism from 
the field of national aspirations to the realm of 
political fact. Not in centuries has any word been 
spoken of equally vital consequence to the well-being 
of Israel. 

Two things may be assumed on the basis of the 
historic utterance of the British Minister of Foreign 
Affairs : the one that Britain is not acting alone. It 
is not for us to predicate that England has spoken 
and acted in concert with her Allies, but we are 
justified in believing that England, ever working in 
closest co-operation with her Allies in the War, will 
in the day of peace find herself not only supported 
by France and Italy, but above all by the American 
Government and people, which, under the leadership 
of President Wilson, must needs insist that the 
destruction of the Prussian ideal must be followed by 
the establishment and maintenance of the integrity 
of the lesser nations. The other fact that is bound 
inevitably with the Declaration of the British Cabi 
net is that it is to be taken for granted that opposi- 
tion to Zionism is ended. 



My. Adolph Kraus 33 

JUDGE JULIAN W. MACK, Chicago 

American Jews, citizens of this great Republic, 
and owing to it their sole and undivided allegiance 
and loyalty, rejoice with the Jews of all countries 
that the British Government has issued this epoch- 
making Declaration. 

The dreams and prayers of twenty centuries, 
embodied in the famous Basle Zionist declaration 
that Palestine may again become the homeland of 
the Jewish people, secured and recognised as such 
by the law of the nations, is approaching realisation^ 

MR. ADOLPH KRAUS, President Independent Order 
B'nai B'rith, U.S.A. 

The Declaration by the British Government that 
it is ready to support the establishment of a home- 
land for the Jewish people in Palestine gains ad- 
ditional significance by reason of the progress which 
the British Forces are making in Palestine. The 
declaration must have the effect of gaining for the 
Zionist cause the support of even such Jews as have 
hitherto been indifferent or opposed to the move- 
ment, for no Jew can consistently oppose the estab- 
lishment of a Jewish homeland, be it ever so small. 



PUBLIC DEMONSTRATIONS 



PUBLIC DEMONSTRATIONS 

THE GREAT THANKSGIVING MEETING AT THE 
LONDON OPERA HOUSE 

The greatest and most imposing public meeting 
ever held in the history of British Jewry was that 
which took place on Sunday, December 2, 1917, at 
the London Opera House, for the purpose of thank- 
ing the British Government for its declaration in 
favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national 
home for the Jewish people. The building was 
crowded with an enthusiastic audience representa- 
tive of all sections of the Anglo-Jewish community. 
Delegates were present from nearly all Jewish con- 
gregations, organisations, institutions, and societies 
in the United Kingdom. The chair was taken by 
Lord Rothschild. 

Lord Rothschild said they were met on the most 
momentous occasion in the history of Judaism for 
the last 1800 years. They were there to return 
thanks to His Majesty's Government for a Declara- 
tion which marked an epoch in Jewish history of 
outstanding importance. For the first time since 
the Dispersion the Jewish people had received its 
proper status by the Declaration of one of the Great 
37 



S8 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

Powers. The Declaration, while acknowledging and 
approving of the aspirations of the Jewish people 
for a national home, at the same time placed Jews 
on their honour to respect the rights and privileges 
not only of their prospective non-Jewish neighbours 
in Palestine, but also of those of their own people 
who did not see eye to eye with the Zionist cause. 
Feeling as he did that the aims of Zionism were in 
no way incompatible with the highest patriotism and 
loyal citizenship of the Jews in the various countries 
in which they were dwelling, he would like the meet- 
ing in passing the resolution which would be sub- 
mitted to them to assure the Government that they 
would, one and all, faithfully observe both the spirit 
and the letter of their gracious Declaration. 
(Cheers.) He felt sure that the principal aim of 
the Zionists was to provide a national home for 
those portions of the Jewish people who wished to 
escape the possibilities in the future of such op- 
pression and ill-treatment as they had endured in the 
past and he therefore held that all and every section 
of opinion in the Jewish people could work together 
for the establislmnent in Palestine of such a home, 
so as to make it a triumphant success. 

LosD Rothschild then moved the following reso- 
lution : 

"That this mass meeting, representing all sections 
of the Jewish community in the United Kingdom, 
conveys to His Majesty's Government an expression 
of heartfelt gratitude for their Declaration in 
favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting 39 

home for the Jewish people. It assures His Majes- 
ty's Government that their historic action in sup- 
port of the national aspirations of the Jewish people 
has evoked among Jews the most profound senti- 
ments of joy. This meeting further pledges its 
utmost endeavours to give its whole-hearted support 
to the Zionist cause." 

Lord Robert Cecil, K.C, M.P., who was re- 
ceived with loud cheering, said: 

I have come here with the greatest possible pleasure 
at the request of those who represent, or who have 
led the representation of the Zionist movement of 
this country, to offer to you and to all Zionists my 
hearty congratulations on the event which you are 
celebrating to-day. (Cheers.) And perhaps you 
will allow me to mention in connection with these 
congratulations, not only your Chairman, but also 
M. Nahum Sokolow and Dr. C. Weizmann, who have 
done so much for the cause that we all have at heart 
this afternoon. Surely all of us must feel what a 
very striking gathering the present one is. The 
keynote of our meeting this afternoon is Hberation. 
(Cheers.) We welcome among us not only the many 
thousands of Jews that I see, but also representa- 
tives of the Arabian and Armenian races who are 
also in this great struggle struggling to be free. 
(Hear, hear.) Our wish is that Arabian countries 
shall be for the Arabs, Armenia for the Armenians, 
and Judaea for the Jews. (Applause.) Yes, and 
let us add, if it can be so, let Turkey, real Turkey, 
be for the Turks. 



40 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

I should like to be allowed to say that the part 
that this country is taking in this movement is not 
a new thing, (Hear, hear.) I venture to claim for 
this country that in supporting Zionism it has been 
merely carrying out its traditional policy. To me, 
at any rate, it seems that there are two great 
foundations upon which the policy of this country 
has always been based. I believe they are often 
described by the two words "Liberty" and "Justice." 
Perhaps more accurately they may be called the 
supremacy of the Law and Liberty, for, be well 
assured, if we are ever to obtain that security which 
we have been recently told is so important to us, 
if we are ever to lift European civilisation and na- 
tional relations in Europe out of the anarchy in 
which they at present are, it must be by the same 
means by which we have secured liberty and happi- 
ness in each country, namely, by the supremacy of 
Law, 

As for the second foundation of which I have 
spoken, and which has more practical bearing on our 
proceedings this afternoon, may I say this : We 
hear a great deal of a new word, "Self-determina- 
tion." Well, I don't know that it is a new thing. 
It certainly is not new in the British Empire. The 
Empire has always striven to give to all the peoples 
that make it up the fullest measure of self-govern- 
ment of which they are capable. (Hear, hear.) We 
have always striven to give to all peoples within our 
bounds complete liberty and equality before the Law. 
(Hear, hear.) We are adjured to respect the prin- 
ciple of self-determination ; but I say that the British 
Empire was the first organisation to teach that prin- 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting 41 

ciple to the world, and one of the great causes for 
which we are in this war is to secure to all peoples 
the right to govern themselves and to work out their 
own destiny, irrespective of the threats and menaces 
of their greater neighbour. (Hear, hear.) 

One of the great steps — in ni}'^ judgment, in some 
ways the greatest step — we have taken in carrying 
out this principle is the recognition of Zionism. This 
is the first constructive effort that we have made in 
what I hope will be the new settlement of the world 
after the war. (Cheers.) I do not say that that is 
the only thing involved. It is not only the recogni- 
tion of a nationality — It is much more than that. It 
has great underlying ideals of which you will hear 
this afternoon and of which it would be imperti- 
nent of me to speak. It is, indeed, not the birth of 
a nation, for the Jewish nation through centuries 
of oppression and captivity have preserved their 
sentiment of nationality as few people could ; but if 
it is not the birth of a nation, I believe we may say 
it is the re-birth of a nation. (Applause.) I don't 
like to prophesy what ultimate results that great 
event may have, but for myself I believe it will have 
a far-reaching influence on the history of the world 
and consequences which none can foresee on the 
future history of the human race. (Loud cheers.) 

Mr. Herbert Samuel, M.P., who received an 
enthusiastic welcome, said: 

I rejoice wholeheartedly In the pronouncement that 
has been made by the British Government with re- 
spect to Palestine. It is a pohcy which for nearly 



42 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

three years I have urged in the Cabinet and out of 
the Cabinet at every opportunity that arose. 
(Cheers.) The fears and the doubts which this 
policy has evoked are, I firmly believe, unfounded. 
Three conditions must indeed be observed in any new 
developments that may take place in Palestine. In 
the first place, there must be full, just recognition of 
the rights of the Arabs, who now constitute the ma- 
jority of the population of that country. Second- 
ly, there must be a reverent respect for the Christian 
and Mohammedan holy places, which in all eventuali- 
ties should always remain in the control and charge 
of representatives of those faiths. (Cheers.) In 
the third place, there must be no attempt now or in 
the future to establish anything in the nature of 
political authority from Palestine over the Jews 
scattered in other countries of the world, who must 
probably always remain the great majority of the 
Jewish race. There should be no disturbance, large 
or small, direct or indirect, in their national status 
or in their national rights and duties in the coun- 
tries of which they are, or should be, full and equal 
citizens. On all these matters there is no divergence 
of opinion in any quarter, and the controversies 
that have taken place, I venture to think, are dis- 
putes over differences that do not exist. 

The reason why, for my own part, I support the 
policy which we are here to-day to approve and 
celebrate are chiefly these. First, it may be that the 
genius of the Jewish race will again be able to give 
to the world a brilliant and distinctive civilisation. 
(Cheers.) The richness of mankind lies in its diver- 
sity. We do not want the world to be hke some 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting . 43 

great library, consisting of notliing but innumerable 
copies of one and the same book. The Jewish mind 
is a distinctive thing. It combines in remarkable 
degree the imaginative and the practical, the ideal 
and the positive. This combination of qualities 
enabled it for 1500 years in Palestine to produce 
an almost unbroken series of statesmen and soldiers, 
judges and poets, prophets and seers — thinkers and 
leaders who have left for all time their impress upon 
the world. The Jewish mind is tenacious and per- 
sists, and now, when all the powerful Empires that 
overran that land have been overthrown and almost 
forgotten, the Jewish people exists and is more 
numerous to-day than it ever has been at any period 
of its history. Who knows, I say, but that if again 
it finds a spiritual centre of its own, soundly based 
on an industrious population, untrammelled, self- 
contained, inspired by the memories of a splendid 
past, it may again produce golden fruits in the fields 
of intellect for the enrichment of the whole world. 
(Cheers.) 

And my other reason is this : If this comes to be, 
what a helpful effect it would have upon the Jewish 
proletariat that will still remain scattered in other 
countries of the world ! I see in my mind's eye those 
millions in Eastern Europe all through the cen- 
turies, crowded, cramped, proscribed, bent with op^ 
pression, suffering all the miseries of active minds 
denied scope, of talent not allowed to speak, of 
genius that cannot act. I see them enduring, suf- 
fering everything, sacrificing everything in order to 
keep alight the flame of which they knew themselves 
to be the lamp, to keep alive the idea of which they 



44 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

knew themselves to be the vessel, to preserve the soul 
of which they knew themselves to be the body; their 
eyes always set upon one distant point, always be- 
lieving that somehow, some day, the ancient great- 
ness would be restored; always saying when they 
met in their families on Passover Night, "Next year 
in Jerusalem." Year after year, generation follow- 
ing generation, century succeeding century, tiU the 
time that has elapsed is counted in thousands of 
years, still they said, "Next year in Jerusalem." If 
that cherished vision is at last to be realised, if on 
the Hills of Zion a Jewish civilisation is restored 
with something of its old intellectual and moral 
force, then among those left in the other countries 
of the world I can see growing a new confidence ai:d a 
new greatness. There will be a fresh light in those 
eyes, those bent backs will at last stand erect, there 
will be a greater dignity in the Jew throughout the 
world. (Cheers.) 

That is why we meet to-day to thank the British 
Government, our own Government — (cheers) — that 
has made all this possible, that we shall be able to 
say, not as a pious and distant wish, but as a near 
and confident hope, "Next year in Jerusalem" — 
D^^jm^n nxnn n^^b — (Loud and prolonged cheers). 

Colonel, Sir Mark Sykes said: 

When one thinks of the years that have passed, 
of the immense spaces of history which stand between 
what was and now is promised to-day, truly one is 
dazzled — one is dazzled by the possibility of the 
prospects which open before us. I saj I am speak- 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting 45 

ing to you as a watcher, but you in a sense perhaps 
also are watchers ; perhaps you see as I see an Asia 
stricken with plagues and cumbered with ruins and 
a Europe a welter of blood. Perhaps you too see 
those two things, and I pray that you realise that it 
may be your destiny to be the bridge between Asia 
and Europe; to bring the spirituality of Asia to 
Europe and the vitality of Europe to Asia. I firmly 
believe that is the mission of Zionism. I see here 
something which is greater than the dream even of 
a League of Nations, which is a dream of a League 
of Races and finally a League of Ideals. There 
is the great vision ; that is what may, that is what 
does, I believe, lie before you. 

But no person realises more than I do — I know 
the ground, some of it, and boldly I dare to say 
that there lie before you dangers, difficulties, and 
possible obstructions ; but, ladies and gentlemen, your 
time of probation has been long. You are schooled 
in adversity ; you can look on difficulties with calm, 
and you will overcome them. I do not look for a 
sudden magic transformation. No ; but I believe 
that vou are beginning a great and beneficial and 
irresistible transition. That is what you are be- 
ginning. 

Now, I believe, you are going to set up a power 
which is not a domination of blood or a domination 
of gold, but a domination of intellectual force. I 
believe you will see in Palestine a great centre of 
ideals radiating out to every country in the world 
where your people are. And if there is one thing 
that gives me great pleasure here to-day it is to feel 
that you — at this turning-point in your history. 



46 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

when the Government made its Declaration — you 
thought not only of yourselves, but you thought also 
— and afterwards you will look back with joy on the 
fact — when the hope of redemption was held out 
to you, you thought not only of yourselves but also 
of j'our fellows in adversity, the Armenians and the 
Arabs. (Loud cheers.) 

The Chief Rabbi said it was indeed a rare privi- 
lege to take part in that wonderful meeting called 
together to express the heartfelt thanks of British 
Jewry for the striking sympathy of Hi>> Majesty's 
Government with Jevvish aspirations. The epoch- 
making Declaration on Palestine was an assurance 
given by the mightiest of empires that the new order 
which the Allies are now creating at such sacrifice 
of life and treasure shall be rooted in righteousness, 
and broad-based on the liberty of and reverence for 
every oppressed nationality. It was a solemn pledge 
that the oldest of national tragedies shall be ended 
in the coming re-adjustment of the nations which 
shall console mankind for the slaughter and waste 
and torment of this terrible world-war. In the face 
of an event of such infinite importance to the Jewish 
people, ordinary words of appreciation or the usual 
phrases of gratitude were hopelessly weak and in- 
adequate. For the interpretation of their true feel- 
ings to-day they must turn to Scripture. Twenty- 
five hundred years ago Cyrus issued his edict of 
liberation to the Jewish exiles in Babylon ; and an 
eye-witness of that glorious day had left them in the 
126th Psalm a record of how their fathers received 
the announcement of their deliverance. "Wlien the 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting 4i% 

Lord brought back those that returnect to Zion" — 
ffo^na 1i'*n — "we were like unto them that drfeam. 
Then said they among the nations : ^The Lord hath 
done great things for them.' The Lord hath done 
great things for us ; ■whereof we are glad." Theirs 
was a similar feehng of joy and wonder. With .them 
likewise it was the astonishment of the nations, ,the 
reassuring approbation of statesmen and rulers that 
caused them to exclaim: "We will see it done, and 
done consummately, the thing so many have thouf ^it 
could never be done.*" (Cheers.) The spirit of tne 
Declaration was that of absolute justice, whether to 
Jews out of Palestine or to non- Jews in Palestine. 
They especially welcomed in it the reference to the 
civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jjgwish 
communities in Palestine. That was but a trans- 
lation of the basic principle of the Mosaic legislation. 
(Cheers.) But it was the substance of the Declara- 
tion — the promise of a national home for the Jewish 
people — that filled their souls with gladness. For 
only on its own soil could the Jewisli people live its 
own life and make, as in the past it had made, its 
characteristic and specific contributions to the spirit- 
ual treasure of humanity. After the proclamation 
issued by Cyrus, the mass of the Jewish people still 
remained in Babylon. All told, only 42,000 men, 
women, and children took advantage of the King's 
proclamation and followed Ezra back to Zion, the 
land of their fathers. But that handful of Zipnists 
and their descendants, because living on their own 
soil, changed the entire future of mankind. They 
edited and collected the Prophets, wrote some of fhe 
fairest portions of the Scriptures, formed the canon 



48 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

of the Bible, and gave the world its monotheistic re- 
ligions. (Cheers.) Now, as then, only "a remnant 
shall return" — 2it5>^ lii^. But now, as then, it was 
the national rejuvenation of that remnant that is 
to open a new chapter in the annals of the human 
spirit. Difficulties.? Of course there were difficul- 
ties. The task of laying the foundations of a new 
Israel must be one of long toil and severe trial. But 
a people that for twenty-five centuries had stood 
victoriously against the storm of time possessed 
vitality enough, patience enough, idealism enough, 
with the help of God, to rise to the level of this 
unique, world-historic opportunity. (Loud cheers.) 

Db. M. Gaster said that he stood before them 
as an old friend, deeply imbued with the spirit of 
faith, a dreamer of visions, if they would. What 
appeared to so many as a dream had now become a 
reality — (cheers) — and they were gathered there to 
begin to reap in joy what they had sown in tears and 
sorrow. It was for all of them a day of joy to see 
the fruits which they had so long wished for. They 
had come together to thank the British Government 
for their Declaration of sympathy with their national 
aspirations. Therein lay the greatness of the British 
Government, that it had lifted the problem from its 
local geographical character and given to it that 
universally valued importance which they attached to 
it. What they wished to obtain in Palestine was 
not merely a right to establish colonies, or educa- 
tional, cultured, or industrial institutions. They 
wanted to establish in Palestine an autonomous Jew- 
ish Commonwealth in the fullest sense of the word. 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting 49 

They wanted Palestine to be Palestine of the Jews 
and not merely a Palestine for Jews. They wished 
the land to be again what it was in olden times 
and what it had been for Jews in their prayers and 
in their Bible — a land of Israel. The ground must 
be theirs. (Cheers.) They stood indeed as a peo- 
ple for the same programme as British statesmen 
were standing to-day in a larger sphere. Jews stood 
for reparation, restitution, and guarantees — 
(cheers) — and it was in the very application of 
those principles that the greatness and importance 
of the Declaration of the British Government stood 
out so luminously. England owed to Jews no repara- 
tion. Here they had liberty, full freedom, equality 
of right and equality of duty, and they had risen 
to the responsibility which had thus been placed upon 
them. For many of them there had their children 
now fighting the battles of England. 

But the British Government had now made itself 
the champion of reparation to the Jewish people for 
the wrongs done to them by the world. It had made 
itself a champion too of the restitution of the land 
to our nation, for whom it is the old inheritance, and 
it had given them a guarantee — security of tenure, 
independence, a right and freedom of action as a 
people in their ancient land. The establishment of a 
Jewish Commonwealth in the land of their fathers 
would also consolidate and clarify the position of the 
rest of the Jews throughout the world. (Hear, 
hear.) He believed that a new world was to arise in 
which the Jew, as Jew, would find himself a free man. 

In conclusion, he reminded them of an old legend 
which told that when the Temple was destroyed the 



50 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

stones split into splinters and each one entered the 
heart of a Jew. It was this memorial of our fallen 
nation which the Jew carried in his bosom and which 
bent his back. But they were coming together once 
again as a nation in Palestine, and they would take 
the splinters of the stones from out of their hearts — 
"and," exclaimed Dr. Gaster, "I feel the stone in 
my heart already loosening." (Loud and prolonged 
cheers. ) 

Shahk Ismail Abdul-al-Akki thon addressed the 
meeting. He spoke in Arabic, and his speech was 
translated by Mr. I. SiefF, who mentioned that the 
speaker was under sentence of death by the .Turkish 
Government for having joined the Arab national 
movement. Shahk Ismail said he desired to tender 
deep gratitude to the British nation and the British 
Government for affording his countrymen and him- 
self help and asylum in their hour of persecution. 
His country was held in chains by the Turks, who 
were supplied with German gold, and he looked with 
confidence to England and France to deliver them 
from bondage, as he believed in the ultimate good 
over evil, and was confident in the victory of the 
Allies. He not only spoke as an Arab, but as a 
"Moslem" Arab, having studied five years in Theolog- 
ical Schools and being granted a Degree, and it 
was the duty of every Moslem to participate in 
the movement for the liberation of their country- 
men. The meeting was to celebrate the great act 
of the British Government in recognising the aspira- 
tions of the Jewish people, and he appealed to them 
not to forget in the days of their happiness that 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting 51 

the sons of Ishmael suffered also. They had been 
scattered and confounded as the Jews had been, and 
now began to arise, fortified with the sense of mar- 
tyrs. He hoped that Palestine would again flow 
with milk and honey. (Cheers.) 

M. Wadia Kesrawani, a Syrian Christian, spoke 
in French, also to the effect that his countrymen 
appealed to England and France for their liberation, 
and applauded the Declaration of the Government. 

Mr. IsKAEii Zangwill,, who was received with loud 
and prolonged cheers, said : 

In my capacity of President of the Jewish Ter- 
ritorial Organisation I have been honoured with an 
invitation to appear on your platform on this 
momentous occasion. In that capacity I have often 
criticised your leaders. But to-day I am here not 
for criticism but for congratulation and co-opera- 
tion. I congratulate them, and especially Dr. Weiz- 
mann and M. Sokolow, upon their historic achieve- 
ment in the region of diplomacy. To see that this is 
followed by a similar achievement in the more dif- 
ficult region of practice is the duty of all Israel. 
Particularly is it the duty of the Ito, founded as 
it was to procure a territorj'^ upon an autonomous 
basis. 

But I do not come to the Government, as Lord 
Morley tells us the Kaiser came to him, with mock 
salaams and marks of Oriental obeisance, for I have 
long maintained that after a war for liberty and 
the rights of small nations this very reparation was 



52 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

due to that unhappy, scattered and divided people 
which has bled and suffered with all the belligerents. 
And as an English-born citizen I am proud that my 
country by thij pro-Jewish manifesto has wiped out 
the stain of her alliance with the fallen Pharaoh. 
But whatever the general Jewish gratitude for this 
extension of the principles of nationalities, the Jews 
in Turkey and other now enemy countries are as 
loyal to their fatherland as we are to ours, and we 
who stand here can have no claim to pledge the 
race to any Power or Powers. All we can say is 
that happily the vast majority are concentrated in 
those Allied and democratic countries with which 
they are in natural affinity. Particularly close is 
their affinity with the English. But it is not sur- 
prising that the nation whose noble version of our 
Scriptures has made the Bible almost a British 
possession should vibrate to Jewish national aspira- 
tions. 

From the first the formula of the Ito has run, 
"To procure a territory upon an autonomous basis 
for those Jews who cannot, or will not, remain in the 
lands in which they at present live." For those and 
for those only. Not for those who can or will remain 
in their present lands. With these there may be a 
spiritual connection, there cannot be a political. And 
to-day, when, to quote your great leader. Max 
Nordau, "the period of rhetoric is over, the hour of 
deeds is approaching," I am glad to have the as- 
surance of the Zionist leaders here that they unre- 
servedly accept the Government's stipulation that 
"nothing shall be done which might prejudice the 
rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting 53 

other country." Once Zionism is established on this 
sound basis, not only docs its formula become identi- 
cal with the Ito's, but I can see no reason why all 
Israel should not co-operate with both organisations 
in developing Palestine as a Jewish national home 
for those Jews who can or will go there. To dimin- 
ish the risks of confusion, let Palestine be called 
what Lord Robert Cecil called it, Judaea, and let 
the Jews who adopt its citizenship be called Judaeans. 
Then all the others will remain as before, Jews — 
Jews of whatever political allegiance they choose. A 
national home in Palestine — freedom and equal rights 
everywhere else; here surely is a platform that can 
unite all Israel, and so far as I can see it is uniting 
them. 

I do not say that this autonomy must come at a 
bound. Though in my opinion the boldest way is 
always the best way and responsibility is a people's 
best educator, yet I am prepared to make all possible 
concessions to circumstances and history. But unless 
the Palestine colonisation is so planned that it must 
eventually produce the national autonomous home I 
for one will not devote my limited strength to such 
a mockery of Jewish aspirations. The times are 
too serious and tragic for such trifling. Mount Zion 
is in labour. Shall it produce a mouse? No, it 
must produce a lion — the lion of Judah. 

Seven crusades to the Holy Land have all meant 
massacra for the Jews; if the eighth crusade is to 
mean Palestine for the Jews, if it is to be truly a 
Christian crusade, then that very fact is a proof of a 
new world-order of love and justice. Let us Jews, 
the people of Isaiah, at such a turning-point in his- 



54 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

tory, make a great act of faith, and, instead of 
disavowing the brotherhood of Israel, let us pro- 
claim from our Jerusalem centre the brotherhood of 
man. 

But this spiritual work is not all that calls to 
us. Palestine is a place full of stones and fever. 
It is a land whose main bulk lies almost as desolate 
as the plains of Flanders — ruined not by German 
war, but by Turkish peace, by centuries of neglect 
and misgovernment. With the depletion of the 
world's resources, and especially of the world's man- 
power, by this terrible war, who is to win this country 
for civilisation if not we Jews? Even if we had no 
historic connection with it, that would be a worthy 
mission for a people. Let me appeal therefore to 
the British Jews to work with us and to work loyall3\ 
For even at the best the goal is far. Palestine is 
not yet ours, and even v/hen it is, our work, despite 
the pioneers we shall always honour — despite even 
Baron Edmond de Rothschild — will only begin. Al- 
ready under the asgls of England our young men 
have died there. But eagerly as our young men have 
sacrificed themselves in Palestine for war, still more 
eagerly will they offer themselves there for tlie 
labours and sacrifices of peace. That will be the 
true Jewish Regiment. 

And though our goal be yet far, and though we 
may not rejoice, yet already when I recall how our 
small nation sustained the mailed might of all the 
great empires of antiquity; how we saw our Temple 
in flames and were scattered like its ashes ; how we 
endured the long night of the Middle Ages, illumined 
by the glare of our martyrs' fires ; how but yesterday 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting 55 

TTe wandered in our millions, torn between the ruth- 
less Prussian and the pitiless Russian, yet have lived 
to see to-day the bloody Empire of the Czars dis- 
solve and the mountains of Zion glimmer on the 
horizon, already I feel we may say to the other 
nations : *'Comfort ye, comfort ye, too, poor suffer- 
ing peoples. Learn from the long patience of Israel 
that the spirit is mightier than the sword, and that 
the seer who foretold his people's resurrection was 
not less prophetic when he proclaimed also for all 
peoples the peace of Jerusalem." (Loud cheers.) 

M. H. N. MosTDiTCHiAN, a member of the Arme- 
nian Delegation, said he availed himself of the oppor- 
tunity of giving their Jewish brethren the heartiest 
greetings of the Armenians — (cheers) — and sincerest 
congratulations for the dawn about to break upon 
the glad valleys of their ancestral land. He made 
a comparison of the two nations who had gone 
through the same persecutions, but who, notwith- 
standing, were not willing to die, and had not died — 
(cheers) — and who stood to-day hand-in-hand on 
the eve of a new era, when both of them would be 
able to live once more their national lives, of which 
they had given good evidence in the past. They all 
knew that Armenia was one of the first countries 
mentioned in the history of the Jews, and there 
had reigned one thousand two hundred years ago a 
dynasty of Armenian kings who had in their veins a 
good deal of Jewish blood. After the loss of their 
independence the Jews had continued to live a life of 
captivity and exile, and the Armenians, after the 
loss of their independence, had suffered the same 



56 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

exile. It was not the time to say what the Armenians 
had suffered during the last three years — a state 
of things to which the worst pogrom was a heaven ; 
but they, as well as the Jews, looked towards ''to- 
morrow" with great fervour as a result of the 
Declaration. They had waited long enough with 
their Jewish brethren, for centuries and centuries, 
and these two nations as well as the Arabs would 
make Palestine another Promised Land and a Garden 
of Eden — a centre to which humanity might look 
up. (Cheers.) 

Mr. Nahum Sokolow said that the Zionist Or- 
ganisation felt the deepest and keenest satisfaction 
at the Declaration of His Majesty's Government. 
He had the honour to make the following declara- 
tion to the Arabs: "Relations between Jews and 
Arabs had hitherto been scanty and spasmodic, 
largely owing to mutual ignorance and indiiference. 
There were no relations whatever between the two 
nations as such, because the oppressive Power did 
not recognise either of them, and whenever points of 
connection began to develop they were destroyed by 
intrigue, to the detriment of both nationalities. We 
believe that the present hour of crisis and the open- 
ing of a large perspective for epoch-making develop- 
ments offer a fruitful opportunity for a broad basis 
of permanent cordial relations between two peoples 
who are inspired by a common purpose. We mean 
a real entente cordiale between Jews, Arabs, and 
Armenians, such an entente cordiale having already 
been accepted in principle by leading representatives 
of these three nations. From such a beginning we 



The Great Thanksgiving JMeeting 57 

look forward with confidence to a future of intel- 
lectual, social, and economic co-operation ; we are 
one with the Arabs and Armenians to-day in the 
determination to secure for each of us the free choice 
of our own destinies. We look with fraternal love 
at the creation of the Arab kingdom, re-establishing 
Semitic nationality in its glory and freedom, and 
our heartiest wishes go out to the noble, hardly-tried 
Armenian nationality for the realisation of their 
national hopes in their old Armenia. Our roots 
were united in the past, our destinies will be bound 
together in the future." That was their declaration 
to their future neighbours. (Cheers.) 

Captain The Hon. W. Ormsby Gore, M.P., said: 

As a British subject who has no Jewish con- 
nections I stand here this afternoon the personal 
friend of the Zionist leaders, one who has seen their 
work during the past year, both here and in Egypt, 
and I wish to congratulate them upon their success 
and join with them in thanking the British Govern- 
ment on the occasion of what I regard as a real 
epoch-making advance in civilisation. It was, I think, 
just about a year ago that I first came into contact 
with the Zionist movement in its practical form, 
when I was brought into close official contact with 
the Palestine refugees in Egypt. And from meeting 
them I learned that the Jews were already, and have 
been during the past forty years, endeavouring to 
bring idealism into that stricken land. The more 
one saw of Turkish rule, more particularly the rule 
since the deposition of Cahph Abdul Hamid by the 



58 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

Young Turks, the more one saw there was no hope 
for Zionism, for Hberty, for fair deahng, even in 
such a matter as taxation, no hope for progressive 
agriculture, unless Palestine were delivered from the 
thraldom of alien rule. I am particularly glad that 
this Declaration has been made by the British Gov- 
ernment at a moment when British arms are deHver- 
ing that land, because it shows that Britain is not 
out for gain for herself, but is out in a greater spirit 
for the ideal of freedom, of self-development, and 
nationality. 

The Jewish claim to Palestine is in my mind over- 
whelming, and, as a British Member of Parliament, I 
rejoice to see from the new number of the Zionist 
Review what an overwhelming mass of British repre- 
sentative opinion, as reflected in the House to which I 
belong, is in support of this movement. One other 
reason for which I support this movement : I support 
it as a member of the Church of England. Sir Mark 
Sykes has spoken as a Roman Catholic principally. 
I am a communicant of the Church of England, and 
in this return to Palestine to be the Jewish home I 
hold out the hand of friendship to the Zionists who 
seek to bring that into effect, and I feel that behind 
it there is the finger of Almighty God. Another 
thing I should like to say and that is that from 
the moment that I met the Zionist leaders, whether 
in Egypt or in this country — from the moment of 
my first introduction to them I felt that there was 
something so sincere, something so, I should call it, 
British — so striking — that at once my heart went 
out to them, and I say this, that you have as your 
leader in this country in Dr. Weizmann a personality 



The Great Thanksgiving Meeting 59 

and a statesman who has shown those great quah- 
ties of patience, of skill, of determination, and of 
intellect which have endeared him to everyone who 
has come across him. I have done what little I can 
to help forward this movement whenever I have had 
the opportunity. In the future if you are looking 
out for friends you may count me as one of them. 
(Cheers.) 

Me. James de Rothschild, who was received with 
great enthusiasm, said he stood there as the son of 
one who had spent his life in endeavouring to bring 
about what they were celebrating that day. Jewish 
ideals up to that time had been met at the gate, but 
they could not get through. With one stroke of the 
pen the English Government had flung open those 
gates. Therefore in every Jewish heart gratitude 
was overflowing, and they must not forget that all 
their aims of the future had been strengthened b}'^ 
the country whose Government had framed the gen- 
erous and just Declaration. (Cheers.) 

Dr. C. Weizmann, President of the English Zion- 
ist Federation, upon rising, received a great ovation. 
He referred to the many good and brilliant words 
which had been said about the Jews, and he hoped 
that the Jews of to-day and the Jews of to-morrow 
would rise to the occasion in the needed power and 
the dignity, and give their answer to the great resolu- 
tion, not only in words, but in deeds. The present 
generation had upon its shoulders the greatest re- 
sponsibility of the last 2000 years, and he prayed 
that they might be worthy of that responsibility. 



60 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

He then called upon the meeting to rise, and with 
hands uplifted to take the old historic oath — each 
man and woman of them — •<y'D'' laEJTi nnat^K DN* D"'?K>TV 
("If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, may my right hand 
forget its power"). 

The meeting rose en masse, repeating the words of 
the psalm amid great enthusiasm, which culminated 
in the singing of "Hatikvah" and "God Save the 
King" by the Precentors' Association. 

OVERFLOW MEETING 

An overflow meeting, over which Mr. P. Horowitz 
presided, was held in the Kingsway Theatre, which 
was crowded in every part. Among those who ad- 
dressed the audience were the Chief Rabbi, Lord 
Lamington, Mr. I. Zangwill, Mr. Joseph Cowen, 
Dr. Selig Brodetsky, Dr. D. Jochelman, and' Mr. 
Israel Cohen. 

A resolution in identical terms with that carried 
at the London Opera House was passed with much 
enthusiasm. 

THE DEMONSTRATION IN MANCHESTER 

A striking demonstration was held on Sunday, 
December 9, 1917, in the Manchester Hippodrome, 
which was crowded with an enthusiastic audience. 
Sir Stuart M. Samuel, Bart., President of the Jewish 
Board of Deputies, presided, supported by all the 
leading Jewish representatives of Manchester and 



The Demonstration in Manchester 61 

the neighbouring towns and by a large number of 
influential non-Jewish citizens, including the Lord 
Mayor of Manchester and the Mayor of Salford. 
The proceedings began with the reading by Mr. 
Leon, the honorary secretary, of letters from Lord 
Rothschild, Lord Robert Cecil, Mr. Herbert Samuel, 
M.P., the Chief Rabbi, and Mr. Arthur Hender- 
son, M.P. 

Mr, Henderson wrote: • 

By its Declaration in favour of the establishment 
of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine, 
the British Government has vindicated the democratic 
claim that this is a war of liberation in which op- 
pressed nationalities will find deliverance. The Brit- 
ish Labour movement has included among its war 
aims a demand that the Jews of all countries, great 
and small, shall enjoy the rare elementary rights of 
tolerance, freedom of residence and travel, and equal 
citizenship that ought to be extended to all the in- 
habitants of every nation; and it has also declared 
its belief that it would be practicable by agreement 
among all the nations to set Palestine free from the 
harsh and oppressive government of the Turk, in or- 
der that the country may form a Free State, under 
international guarantee, where the Jewish people 
may work out their own salvation free from inter- 
ference by those of alien race and religion. To this 
policy the British Government and people are now 
solemnly pledged. 



'62 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

Sir Stuart M. Samuel., in rising to speak, had 
an enthusiastic reception. Looking towards the 
Chanucah light just kindled, he said: 

My Lord Mayor, this candle has been lighted in 
Jewish homes for the last 2000 years, and represents 
the undying flame of hope — the characteristic of the 
Jewish people in those long years when they never 
lost the hope that one day the Divine promise might 
be fulfilled before their eyes. 

Continuing, Sir Stuart Samuel said that, with re- 
gard to the Declaration of the Govemmentsj he 
thought it was far easier to return Palestine to the 
Jews than for the Jews to return to Palestine, 
(Laughter.) Jews to be successful in Palestine must 
be united; not only in this country, but throughout 
the world should they present a united front, for 
united they were strong. He appealed to all to sink 
their own views for the common good. The wel- 
fare of their brother-Jews must be the idea that 
should permeate them ail. Small ideas must vanish 
for the welfare of the whole. After centuries of wait- 
ing progress must be gradual ; one could not gamble 
when the fate of a people was at stake. No large in- 
flux of population must go forth to Palestme till it 
was prepared to receive them. Jews must give the 
same religious freedom to others as they themselves 
expected. They should hold out a helping hand to 
other nations who had suffered; firstly, to the Ar- 
menians, and to a less extent the Arabs as fellow- 
partners in misfortune, and show them that Jews de- 
sired to live in peace and amity with them. Let 



The Demonstration in Manchester 63 

Jews always remember that it was due to the free- 
dom enjoyed in this blessed country, England, that 
they could thus hold out the hope of brotherhood. 
Living in England, they could realise thoroughly the 
gift of freedom. To sympathise deeply, one must 
suffer deeply. The cities of Palestine would be as 
cities of refuge to the persecuted in God's own time 
and bring ^KTkJ^ij DI^B^ (Loud applause.) 

The Lord Mayor of Manchester, who received 
an ovation, said he spoke for the majority, perhaps 
the whole of his fellow-citizens, when he wished them 
God-speed in their movement. He had many good 
friends among the Jews in Manchester, and looked 
upon them as a very valuable part of the city life. 
He had, as it were, a personal interest in the Zionist 
movement, as he had been in Palestine and was now 
represented there by a son who was in the British 
army. The world owed a great debt to the Jews, 
who had held up that great idea and been true to it 
through torment and torture, the idea of again ac- 
quiring the land of Palestine. He earnestly hoped 
that the idea would be reahsed, and it was best real- 
ised by winning this war — (cheers) — by destroying 
for ever German militarism and by crushing it witli 
ferocity. When peace at length came then the vi- 
sion of the prophet Isaiah would be realised. (Ap- 
plause.) 

Sib Mark Sykes said that since Mr. Balfour'/? let- 
ter to Lord Rothschild testimony had come from 
millions of Jews all over the world that the mass of 
Jewry was profoundly moved. Although within the 



^4 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

two thousand years past Jewry had on occasion 
been moved in unison it had always before been on 
some matter of grief and never of joy. The war had 
been fruitful in negatives, but here was a great posi- 
tive. For centuries there had been something amiss 
with civilisation. Every nation and every continent 
had had its Jewish problem, oppressive laws, Ghet- 
tos, Pales; here Jews were proscribed and evicted, 
there tolerated and assimilated, and between the two 
one did not know whether the first was not the bet- 
ter. The realisation of the Zionist ideal was the 
end of all that. Zionism would give the Jews of the 
world a higher position than they had ever held be- 
fore. Although few might go to Palestine in pro- 
portion to those who remained without, the latter 
would not suifer. No British Jew would be less 
British because he could look at the cradle of his race 
with pride and at the religious centre of his faith 
with happiness and reverence. When the spiritual 
citizenship was clearly and nobly defined the civic 
citizenship would be higher than ever before. 

But there were practical considerations. He re- 
garded it as vital for the success of the Zionist plan 
that it should rest upon a Jewish, Armenian, and 
Arab entente. The Armenian was one of an op- 
pressed people, and until he could live his life and 
realise his national aspirations the Jews could have 
no guarantee that the tyranny which fell upon him 
would not fall upon them. We had been told that 
the Turk had tolerated the Jew. It was because 
in Turkey the Jews had not been a political element, 
and had had no agrarian population. The day that 
Zionism was realised they were land-holders, and be- 



The Demonstration in Manchester 65 

came to the Turk the same as the Bulgar, the Serb, 
the Greek, the Armenian, the Arab. Until they had 
hberated the Armenians they could not be se- 
cure; they must have between themselves and their 
possible aggressor a stable, progressive Armenian 
state. 

When he spoke of the Arabs he entered into no 
nice distinctions. He referred to those in Asia who 
were one in language and in blood. By environment 
they were called Syrians, Mesopotamians, Mosulis, 
Aleppines; by religion they were called Christians, 
Mussulmans, Druses, MItawelis, Ansaries ; in blood, 
there was on the male side a little infusion In Syria 
of the Crusader, and in Mesopotamia of Turanian 
and Iranian, but scientists would call these only 
traces. Eighty-five per cent, of the stock was Se- 
mitic. For 800 years the Arabs had been under Turk- 
ish dynasties. Their canals of Mesopotamia had 
been iniined, and when Vasco da Gama rounded the 
Cape he cut them off from European commerce. 
They were bound. Impoverished, divided by Turkish 
intrigue, and isolated by events. Were they dead? 
Never. "You know the Semite sleeps but never 
dies." (Loud cheers.) Wherever there were men 
of Arab stock, whether in Nigeria or Chicago, Java 
or Manchester, one would find progressive people 
who took interest in art, In literature. In philosophy, 
and had a high place in commerce. The Arabs of 
to-day had the same vitality and capacity as the 
Arabs who under the Ommayads carried civilisation 
from Damascus to Cordova in Spain, and from Bas- 
ra to the wild steppes of Austral Asia ; as the Ab- 



66 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

bassids who spread hterature and art from Bagdad 
to the whole civihsed world. 

To-day the Arabs were pre-nationalist. They 
were one in blood and in tongue. There were seven 
or eight millions of them ; they were prolific. There 
was a combination of man-power, virgin soil, petro- 
leum, and brains. What was that going to produce 
in 1950? The iiievitable result was that the seven 
or eight millions would turn to 20 millions ; the Meso- 
potamian canal system would be reconstructed; 
Syria must become the granary of Europe ; Bagdad, 
Damascus, and Aleppo would be each as big as 
Manchester; universities and a great Press must 
arise. 

Arab civilisation was coming there ; no Sultan or 
Kaiser could prevent it, and when it came no im- 
perialists and financiers would be able to control it. 
It was the destiny of the Jews to be closely connected 
with the Arab revival, and co-operation and goodwill 
from the first were necessary, or ultimate disaster 
would overtake both Jew and Arab. Therefore he 
warned the Jews to look through Arab glasses. 
(Cries of "We will, we will!") 

What did the Arab fear? He feared financial cor- 
porations, pivoted on Palestine, controlling Syria 
and Mesopotamia. He feared the soil of Palestine 
would be bought by companies, and that he would 
become a proletariat working on the soil for alien 
masters. He feared the Palestinian colonists might 
drop their colonies and drift into Syria and Meso- 
potamia as middlemen and crush him out of exist- 
ence. It was essential that Zionists should realise 
and face these dangers. He dared say these things 



The Demonstration in Manchester 67 

because he believed in Zionism, and knew that it 
was idealistic and not a financial manoeuvre. (Loud 
cheers.) The Arabs should understand that the 
Jews sought no land not willingly sold ; that all land 
so purchased would only be developed through Jew- 
ish labour — (loud cheers) ; that the colonists would 
be bona fide colonists, and that the Jews were out 
to win Palestine, not by financial manoeuvres, but 
by the sweat of their brow. (Prolonged cheering, 
many rising to their feet.) The co-operation of the 
two races oif ered such prospects to mankind ; hostil- 
ity would mean such an unthinkable tragedy that he 
felt it his duty to give the warning. 

A second warning that he would offer was that 
Zionists should remember that Jerusalem was a 
triple shrine, sacred to Christian, Jew, and Moslem 
alike, because he as a Catholic had kissed the stone 
of the Holy Sepulchre and knew something of what 
the Moslem felt in regard to the Mosque of Omar 
and something of what the Jew felt when he laid his 
hand on the stones of the Wailing Place. Jerusalem 
throbbed with history ; it was inflammable ground, 
and a careless word or gesture might set half a con- 
tinent aflame. Jewish policy would not be reahsed 
by diplomacy, tact, delicacy, or the virtues of the 
drawing-room politician. Jerusalem called for more 
than that. It did not call for toleration, but for 
sympathy, understanding, compassion, sacrifice — 
"sympathy with the Moslem, to whom the Mosque 
of Omar is the most sacred spot on earth ; under- 
standing the Christian, who, like myself, feels that in 
helping Zionism he is doing something to make a 
great amend. Sacrifice all sense of triumph, of old 



68 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

memories of ancient wrong. Approach it not in a 
spirit of toleration, but of brotherhood and af- 
fection." 

He beheved that, approached in the right spirit, 
Zionism would be the cause of a great reconcihation, 
not of fusion, but good fellowship between members 
of three faiths of common origin. Misused it would 
be the beginning of bitterer strife than ever the 
world had known. Timidity was the road to ruin; 
let them face facts boldly. In the realisation of 
their ideal he saw security for the world's peace. 
He saw them co-operating as the moral guarantors 
and protectors of small States, being perhaps the 
smallest and the greatest at the same time. He saw 
them healing the religious distractions which had 
severed the best from the best throughout the ages. 
In Jerusalem there would be a great vital heart, 
healing the scars of Europe and calling Asia once 
more back to life. (Prolonged cheers, the audience 
rising repeatedly.) 

Mr. James de Rothschild said the British Gov- 
ernment, representing wilhout any doubt the voice 
of an enlightened and large-hearted democracy, had 
ratified the Zionist scheme. What was wanted from 
the Jewish people was no longer schemes, but deeds, 
and he hoped that in the near future cohorts of 
modern Maccabees would be fighting their way 
through the hills of Judsea. (Cheers.) The Jewish 
claim was one for justice, and that also was the ba- 
sis of the claims of the Arabs and Armenians, claims 
which Jews fully endorsed and were pledged to sup- 
port. Britain stood as the foster-mother of the 



The Demonstration in Manchester 69 

new-born Jewish nation, and he looked forward to 
the day when that nation, steeled in adversity but 
proud in hope, had proved itself by dint of its work 
to be a real daughter. 

Mr. Joseph Cowen, who was received with cheers, 
said the Declaration was Restoration ; it was, per- 
haps, the one thing which, say .500 years hence, 
would be singled out as the most historic act of this 
world-war; it seemed so transcendentally important 
not only to Jews, but likewise to the world. Jews 
must not always be dreamers. They had already 
begun some pioneer work in Palestine, and in time 
would be proud of their colonists. On what they ac- 
complished during the next twenty years depended 
the verdict of the world. He believed they would rise 
to the cause, their men and their v/omen with their 
heart in the good work. (Loud cheers.) 

Dr. Weizmann, who was received with loud and 
long-sustained applause, said: 

I desire to associate myself on behalf of the or- 
ganisation which I have the honour to represent, 
the English Zionist Federation, with the sincere re- 
gard which is tendered by this great city to His 
Majesty's Government. As one who had the privi- 
lege of contributing somewhat to the negotiations 
with that Government I can realise the spirit in 
which this Declaration has been granted to us. The 
friendliness, the understanding of and sympathy 
with our cause as shown by the statesmen who rule 
the destinies of England, would, if it were known. 



70 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

be regarded as a source of the greatest comfort to 
Jews all over the world. Moreover, not only has 
the Government granted us this Declaration, but it 
means to put it into effect as soon as possible. I 
hope that when the military position will allow it, a 
Commission of Zionist Jews will go out to Palestine 
for two great purposes. The first and immediate 
purpose will be to grant relief and to heal the 
wounds which have been produced by the devasta- 
tions of war. The distress in Palestine is great, and 
relief is needed immediately. We have done what 
we could do at present, but much more has to be 
done in the immediate future, and that will be one 
of the objects of the Commission. 

The second and perhaps more difficult task will be 
to form plans and opinions for setting about the 
difficult task of colonising and rejuvenating the old 
country. In this mood of festivity in which you now 
are, I would also like to utter a word of warning. 
An ancient and experienced people will prove their 
wisdom by restraining themselves at the right time. 
Let us all remember that the building of Palestine is 
a slow, gradual and laborious process, which will tax 
heavily our resources and our patience. Catch- 
words such as "We must have a Jewish state at 
once," will do us a great deal of harm. We cannot 
have masses of immigrants streaming into Palestine 
before the country is ready to receive them. I am 
fearing such a contingency much more than any 
opposition which is at present shown to Zionism. 
We must never be afraid of our opponents. I am 
frightened sometimes by the zeal of some of our 
friends. 



The Demonstration in Manchester 71 

Many a warning has been given to us to-night; 
these warnings were grave, wise, and important ; they 
are the more significant as they come from the man 
who has been instrumental more than anybody else 
in bringing about the Government's Declaration. 
He has styled himself to-night the pilot, and indeed 
he was, is, and I hope will be still for a long time a 
great pilot to us. But may I be permitted to state 
that I was listening to some of these warnings with 
a certain sense of astonishment and humiliation, be- 
cause it seemed to me that they were not altogether 
necessary, at least as far as Zionists are concerned. 
Why, it is the very essence of Zionism not to do 
those three things against wliich Sir Mark Sykes has 
warned us. Have not we Zionists, as members of a 
democratic movement, fought constantly against 
these so-called international Jewish financial specu- 
lators.^ This type of Jew has always been the im- 
placable enemy of Zionism. From where has the op- 
position to Zionism been recruited.'^ It has not come 
from the Ghettos where Jewish traditions are still 
alive. It has not come from those who are ready to 
go and settle on the land. The opposition to Zion- 
ism comes chiefliy from the so-called cosmopolitan 
Jew for whose doings and dealings we decline with 
scorn all responsiblhty. I think there is no danger 
of them catching the first train for Jerusalem. 
(Laughter.) 

It is a truism to Zionists that as long as tlie land 
is bought by Jews and not worked by Jews it is not 
Jewish land. (Applause.) The land becomes Jew- 
ish not through the act of buying it but through 
the act of holding and working it. Among the many 



72 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

colonies which "we have in Palestine, there is one, 
perhaps the least imposing, perhaps the least con- 
spicuous. The name o£ this colony is Chedera, but 
it is the most Jewish of all the colonies. And why? 
The answer to this question is written in the ceme- 
tery of Chedera, where generation after generation 
have laid down their lives because they preferred to 
work on the soil and be stricken with fever, rather 
than desert and leave the work to others. And this 
is why the colony has become the most Jewish of 
them all. 

For the last ten years of our colonising activity 
there has been zn increasing tendency to replace sys- 
tematically and sometimes at considerable economic 
disadvantage Arab labour by Jewish labour, and 
I would ask the Arabs to remember if we do it, it 
is not because we are against the Arabs, but be- 
cause we desire to heed the warning of which Sir 
Mark Sykes spoke to-night, and really make the 
country Jewish. We want the colonies to be Jew- 
ish and to be worked by Jews, and I beg of our 
friends the Arabs to understand that it is an ele- 
mentary postulate for those who desire to build up 
a Jewish country that this should be done by Jewish 
labour and by Jewish intellect, and not only by Jew- 
ish finance. It may all be very hard work, but every 
process of construction is a difficult one. 

Another warning has been given to us to-night — 
you Jews try and be united. Of course we under- 
stand the absolute necessity of unity, and for years 
we have been organising and consolidating Jewry, 
and I think we are able to point to notable achieve- 
ments in that direction. It is difficult, nay irapossi- 



The Demonstration in Manchester 73 

ble, for the Jewish people, dispersed as it is among 
all the peoples of the world, to show the same as- 
pects of unity as a normal European nation does ; 
but may I remind you all that, very often Jews are 
reproached for being too united — the so-called Jew- 
ish solidarity has always been a beam in the eyes 
of our enemies. 

We are further asked to understand and to re- 
spect others. Who could understand and respect 
others better than the Jews, who have suffered ^a 
much ai;d so long from lack of being understood? 
Don't we try to understand constantly, and have we 
not suffered from the fact that we have been mis- 
understood.'* How has the world treated the Jews? 
It has been either philo-Semitic or anti oemitic, both 
equally despicable. We don't desire to be particu- 
larly loved and patronised, and don't wish to be an 
object of hatred. We wish to be taken just as 
we are, with all our faults and all our qualities, just 
as we try to take others. Here we are, just u.ews 
and nothing else, a nation an ong nations ; take it 
or leave it. All these are the ^ery essence of Jew- 
ish nationalism and Zionism, and if the improbable 
should happen that some of us should forget them 
for a moment, we shall be quickly enough reminded 
of them by our enemies. 

We are living through a great event, an event 
which imposes on us a tremendous responsibility. 
Every act we shall be performing v;ill be watchi^d 
and scrutinised, and all our n:istakes will be mag- 
nified and placed in the forefront. Therefore we 
must try to do our utmost to perform all our tasks 
perfectly. We must double and treble our energies. 



74 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

All that we have done hitherto is only the beginning ; 
the difficulties are still in front of us. For that 
purpose we must unite and combine our forces and 
leave our opponents strictly alone. We are not 
anxious for their help and we are not frightened by 
their opposition. If the non-Zionists come to us 
they will always be welcome; if they stay away we 
shall not blame them — under one condition, that they 
do not interfere with us, (Applause.) 

What we do we shaU do on our responsibility, 
and I think we are grown up enough to take this 
responsibility on our shoulders. Non-Zionists or 
anti-Zionists must not be frightened that they may 
be blamed for our faults ; we shall take the blame 
ourselves, but also the credit. For those who want 
to comt to us we shall build a golden bridge, we 
shall meet them halfway, we shall ask them to co- 
operate on those practical problems on which we 
can co-operate without sacrificing the fundamental 
principles of the movement. When the day comes 
for the building and construction of Palestine to 
begin, one of our most important tasks will be to set 
our accounts right with our neighbours, the Arabs 
and the Armenians. We cannot live in harmony with 
them otherwise. That is the forceful logic of the 
events. There is enough air and land and water in 
Palestine for everybody to live on. 

We all hope and believe that out of this welter 
of blood and destruction a better world will arise. 
If misunderstandingo existed in the past between Ar- 
abs and Jews we have not created them; they have 
been created by those who were the masters of Pal- 
estine, by the deadening hand of the Turk, who can 



The Demonstration in Manchester 75 

only rule over his empire by playing off one part of 
the population against the other. All that, we hope, 
will disappear now. Is it not imperative, is it not 
logical, that we who have suffered so much from 
physical force should try and reconstitute in Pales- 
tine an age of justice and right for everybody? It 
is strange indeed to hear the fear expressed that the 
Jew in Palestine may become an aggressor, that the 
Jew who has been always the victim, the Jew who 
has always fought the battle of freedom for others, 
should suddenly become an aggressor because he 
touches Palestinian soil. Has the world forgotten 
that on this very Palestinian soil the Jewish genius 
gave birth to the social code which has become the 
foundation of modern civilisation? Peace will, we 
fervently beheve, reign in Palestine, and the Word 
of God will come forth from Zion as of old. In a 
world without artificial frontiers and Krupp guns, 
with different nationalities living side by side peace- 
fully, working and labouring for the new civilisa- 
tion that will emerge out of this war, the Jew will 
take up again his rightful place. 

The Palestine which v/e expect to build up is not 
going to be a mere copy of what exists already in 
the world — it is going to be better. It will not neces- 
sarily be a copy of Switzerland or Belgium — it is no 
use multiplying copies. It is going to be something 
which will spring out of the Jewish soil, out of the 
Jewish soul, out of the Jewish genius. We shall util- 
ise the accumulated experience of thousands of years 
of suffering. That is the ideal we have before us, 
for which we live and labour, and this ideal excludes 
aggression, excludes animosity towards those with 



76 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

whom we are bound to work and live. (Prolonged 
cheers. ) 

Mb. N. Sokolow said: 

For us Zionists — for I have the honour to speak 
to you in the name of the Zionist Organisation — it 
has always been one of the most important points 
in our Zionist programme to get publicly recognised 
and full political security for what we are going to 
build up in Palestine, in order that we mv.j build on 
sound foundations. It is true that we did not wait 
in a state of passivity; we started our work even 
before we had got these international securities. We 
worked to the utmost of our powers, and we suc- 
ceeded in creating in Palestine a nucleus of modern 
agricultural colonisation, a work in which we were 
generously helped by that great man whose son was 
hailed by you with so much enthusiasm and grati- 
tude. (Applause.) Still, the security was missing. 
Now we hope to receive the essential, the most es- 
sential part of political security and self-govern- 
ment under this Declaration, from the greatest 
Power of the world, which is to decide the fate of 
Palestine — the Power which has been for centuries 
the shield and the rock of freedom and justice, and 
the school for colonisation and for a true and just 
management of its colonies. In welcoming the Dec- 
laration we are loyal and faithful to our programme 
which we proclaimed more than twenty years ago 
at our first Conference in Basle. That principle of 
poUtical security and self-government is essential 
for the success and realisation of our work in Pales- 



The Demonstration in Manchester 77 

tine, and therefore we Zionists are overcome with joy 
at this solemn hour, receiving a considerable part of 
what we claimed in the shape of the Declaration of 
His Majesty's Government. (Applause.) 

But it is not only the Jewish people who remained 
faithful to its traditions in receiving this Declara- 
tion ; Great Britain in giving it has also proved once 
more her good faith. This Declaration is a continu- 
ation, even more a crowning, of all that Britain has 
done for the Jews during generations un il the pres- 
ent day. (Applause.) When the Jews were expelled 
from Spain in 1492, and from Portugal in 1552, 
some of them came to Holland, and one of the Jewish 
Rabbis of Amsterdam came in 1655 to this country 
and stood before Cromwell. He presented Crom- 
well with the petition for the readmission of the Jews 
to this country, using mainly motives of a rather 
Zionistic character. The readmission of the Jews to 
this country was the first great act of justice done 
by England to the Jews. It is rather historic that 
the Jewish people should now give an expression of 
their deep gratitude to this great nation of Britain. 
And I think, ladies and gentlemen, that the friend- 
ship of the Jewish people is worth having. (Ap- 
plause.) 

You have heard some references to the rejoicings 
that are now going on, but these are but a very small 
part of what is transpiring at the present moment 
throughout Jewry in all the countries of the world. 
It is a wave not only of enthusiasm, not only of 
gratitude, but of deep consciousness, because the 
Jewish people are conscious of their responsibility 
for the actions they are about to undertake, and in 



78 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

view of the new chapter which is opening in Jewish 
history, a chapter which has to be written by the 
Jews all over the world. Not only the Zionists 
among the Jews, but the whole Jewish people Is pene- 
trated with the deepest feeling of responsibility for 
what Is about to happen. You will have realised 
already that the Jews In Russia are perhaps the 
most pronounced friends of England. Why are 
they the friends of England.? Not only because 
England has granted so great a boon to the 
Jewish people, but because they know what the 
right of a nation means, and because they are aware 
of the high Ideals for which England is fighting. 
They know that England is the main propulsive 
force of the world's destiny, and that the diffusion 
of her spirit is the most valuable promise of true 
peace. They know that there is no free people to- 
day that has not fed from Great Britain's experience 
and copied her institutions. England has been and 
still is more than any other nation attached to our 
Bible. Now, by this Declaration England has 
played a role that Is truly biblical. (Applause.) 

We appreciate deeply the important remarks of- 
fe ed by our distinguished friend Sir Mark Sykes on 
the subject of the relations between the Jews, the 
Arsbs, and the Armenians. My reply to these re- 
marks is : We are Zionists — not only Zionists for 
ourselves, but also for the Arabs and the Armenians 
as well. Zionism means faithfulness to one's own 
old country, to one's own old home. Zionism means 
consciousness of a nation. Can we Jews be ignorant 
of the fact that the Arab nation is a noble nation 
which has been persecuted .? Is not the co-operation 



The Demonstration in Manchester 79 

between the Arabs and ourselves, the Jews, in the 
Middle Ages for civilisation and for true culture 
written in our hearts and deep-rooted in our con- 
science? Our membership of the Semitic race, our 
title to a place in the civilisation of the world and 
to influence the world and take our share in the de- 
velopment of civilisation, have always been empha- 
sised. If racial kinship really counts, if great asso- 
ciations exist which must serve as a foundation for 
the future, these associations exist between us and 
the Arabs. I believe in the logic of these facts. In 
the principle of nationality lies the certainty of our 
justice. There lies also the certainty of our brother- 
hood with the Arabs and the Armenians. We look 
most hopefully to the happy days when these three 
nations will create — in fact they have already created 
in the consciousness of some of their leaders — an 
entente eordiale in the countries of the Near East 
which have been neglected for so long. 

We are not going to take away anvbody's prop- 
erty or to prejudice anybody's rights. We are go- 
ing to find the land which is available and to settle 
down wherever there is room, and to live in the best 
relations with our neighbours — to live and to let the 
others live, Palestine is not yet a populated, civi- 
lised, prosperous country. We are going to make 
it so by investing our means, our energies, and our 
intelligence. I was glad to hear that some of your 
speakers had been to Palestine. They have seen how 
the country looks. You may have read in The Times 
that one of its correspondents described the hills of 
Judaea as roadless, barren hills. But they were not 
always roadless and barren. In old times these hills 



^0 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

were covered with terraces. Now the Jews have 
again gone there and have rebuilt some of these ter- 
races. If there is anything left of civilisation, of 
modern agriculture, and of industry in the country 
it is due to the efforts of that handful of Jewish set- 
tlers working under the most difficult conditions. 

I would like to say also a few words on the relig- 
ious question. I had the honour to speak on this 
question to some representatives of the Church of 
England and to the head of the Roman Catholic 
Church, the Pope. (Applause.) I made to them a 
statement, which I can repeat to you here. We 
Zionists hate the word toleration, and Sir Mark 
Sykes really stnjck the very point when he con- 
demned the word. We don't like mere toleration by 
non-Jews, and we don't want them to be tolerated. 
We know that Palestine is full of sanctuaries and 
of holy places, holy to the Christian world, holy to 
Islam, holy to ourselves. Are we blind not to see 
that there are these places of worship and of ven- 
eration ? Palestine is the very place where religious 
conjflicts should disappear. There we should meet as 
brethren, and there we should learn to love each 
other, not merely to tolerate each other. (Applause.) 
I declared this to the representatives of the great 
Churches and I can repeat it here. 

M. Sokolow concluded with some remarks in He- 
brew. 

The Chairman then put the following resolution, 
which was carried with acclamation: 



Demonstrations in America 81 

*'Resolved that this mass meeting, representing all 
sections of the Jewish community of Manchester, 
conveys to His Majesty's Government an expression 
of heart-felt gratitude for their Declaration in fa- 
vour of the establishment in Palestine of a national 
home for the Jewish people. 

"It assures His Majesty's Government that their 
historic action in support of the national aspira- 
tions of the Jewish people has evoked among Jews 
the most profound sentiments of joy. This meeting 
further pledges its utmost endeavours to give its 
wholehearted support to the Zionist cause." 

In addition to the Jewish demonstrations m Lon- 
don and Manchester, enthusiastic public meetings, 
at which similar resolutions were passed, were held 
in most of the Jewish communities in the United 
Kingdom. 

DEMONSTRATIONS IN AMERICA 

Thousands of New York Zionists packed the Car- 
negie Hall at a commemoration meeting. Thou- 
sands more crowded the streets around the building, 
unable to get in, until long after the beginning of the 
meeting. The United States, British, and Zionist 
flags, intertwined, were hung on the walls, and songs 
In Hebrew were Interspersed between the speeches. 
The leaders of the Zionists in New York and the 
Old World dwelt on the significance of the British 
victory. 



82 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

Dr. Schmarya Levin, speaking in Yiddish, de- 
clared that Great Britain's promise was not an act 
of politics or diplomacy, but something far deeper 
— a stage in the development of history, which, in 
effect, added another chapter to the Bible — a mod- 
em chapter, by which Jews of to-day could link 
something of their own time to the story of the old 
Jewish kingdom. Dr. Levin spoke as the represen- 
tative of the International Zionist Organisation. 
The Rev. Dr. O. A. Glazebrook, late United States 
Consul at Jerusalem, declared: It is the duty of 
every Jew who loves Palestine, who fosters the hope 
of the restoration of Israel, to use his influence, his 
material wealth, and his life to see that England and 
the Allies win this war. We have seen, Dr. Glaze- 
brook continued, the vision of the restoration of the 
Jewish people, and we pray that this vision may not 
be spoiled by the war, but may be crowned by the 
war ending gloriously in a victory for the Entente 
Powers. If Palestine is to be restored to Israel, re- 
member that Palestine and Syria must remain in the 
hands of the Allies, and our most important lesson 
just now, more important than the immediate work- 
ing out of details of the Zionistic state, is that you 
see and do your whole, complete duty in this war 
— by helping to secure success for Britain, France, 
Italy, and America. 

Dr. Stephen S. Wise, chairman of the meeting, 
said that what Zionists were rejoicing over was onl}^ 
a scrap of paper, "but that scrap of paper is written 
in English, it is signed by the British Government, 
and therefore is sacred and in\^olable." 



Demonstration in Russia 83 

An impressive mass meeting was held at Washing- 
ton at which Christians and Jews united to com- 
memorate the taking of Jerusalem by the British. 
Notable addresses were delivered by Dr. Harding, 
Bishop of Washington, Rabbi Abram Simon, and 
Dr. James Montgomery. 

Rabbi Simon said: As one of the household of 
Israel I am glad to be with you and rejoice with you 
to-day. The better Christians you are the more I 
love you, as love was the spirit in which the British 
entered Jerusalem. Instead of wild hurrahs the 
British doffed their hats, led by the great General, 
who walked humbly on foot. How different from 
the way Germans enter any city ! The Welshmen 
and Australians who led the line cut off no baby's 
hands, stabbed or ravaged no women, tore up no 
agricultural lands, left nothing to cause shame, but 
were willing to allow the sunlight of their great 
achievement to reflect its brilliancy in the exhibition 
of God's mercy. 

DEMONSTRATION IN RUSSIA 

The Zionists of Odessa, where more than half the 
population is Jewish, organised a great demonstra- 
tion of all Jewish organisations, including Jewish 
political refugees from Rumania. For half a mile 
outside the Consulate the street was packed by a 
crowd of 150,000 people, and a procession two miles 



84 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

long marched past the Consulate playing British and 
Jewish National Anthems. 

An address signed by the chief of the Zionist 
movement in Odessa was handed to the British Con- 
sul with the request that he would express to his 
King, Government, and nation the heartfelt thanks 
of all the Jews of Odessa. The appearance of the 
British Consul on the balcony was a signal for pro- 
longed and repeated cheers for the British King, the 
British Government, and the British people. The 
Consul having thanked them in a short speech re- 
mained on the balcony for two hours while the pro- 
cession continued to march past, repeating their 
National Anthems and making public and private 
expressions of their deep thanks and emotion on 
hearing England's message of goodwill. After leav- 
ing the British Consulate the procession proceeded 
to the American Consulate, where similar scenes oc- 
curred. On the following day a deputation of Rab- 
bis representing fifty-eight Odessa synagogues, to- 
gether with some Vitkop parishioners, handed the 
Consul an address in similar terms to the British 
people. 

DEMONSTRATION IN EGYPT 

A mass meeting, called under the auspices of the 
Central Committee of the Zionist Organisation of 
Egypt and organised by the Zeire Zion Society of 



Demonstration in Egypt 85 

Alexandria, was attended by between 7000 and 8000 
people. The Governor of Alexandria was present. 
Twenty diiferent organisations and institutions were 
represented by delegates, and the Chief Rabbi of 
Alexandria, Professor Delia Pergola, also attended. 
Extraordinary enthusiasm permeated the atmo- 
sphere of the meeting. It was decided to send the 
following telegram: 

"The Right Honourable Lloyd George, Prime 
Minister, Downing Street, London. Mass meeting 
of 8000 Jews held to-day in Alexandria manifested 
indescribable enthusiasm during reading Mr. Bal- 
four's Declaration, and expressed its deepest grati- 
tude to His Majesty's Government. Jack Mosseri, 
President, Zionist Organisation of Egypt." 



PR^S COMMENT 



PRESS COMMENT 

All Jewish newspapers in Allied and neutral coun- 
tries, and, to a certain extent, even in the enemy 
countries, have welcomed in laudatory terms the 
British Government's Declaration. Even papers that 
were formerly opposed to the Zionist ideal have now 
assumed a friendly attitude in view of the inclusion 
of this ideal among England's war aims. The fol- 
lowing is only a brief selection of Press opinions : 

The Zionist Revierw (Special Supplement), Decem- 
ber, 1917: 

The Declaration is, first, a formal public recogni- 
tion by Great Britain (and that is by the Allies) 
that Israel as a nation lives and persists. It is, sec- 
ond, a recognition that the problem of the Jewish 
nation and of Judaism can be solved only in and 
through a Jewish Palestine. It is, third, a pledge 
that the peace settlement must include such a solu- 
tion by the establishment of a Jewish national home 
in Palestine. The whole Jewish cause, as the Jew- 
ish people have lived it through eighteen hundred 
years and as Zionists have expounded it, is thus em- 
bodied in the common law of humanity. From that, 
whatever were the outcome of the military struggle, 



90 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

nothing henceforth could eliminate it. All this we 
owe even now to Great Britain, and in a relatively- 
few months we shall owe the full redemption of what 
is now pledged, the realisation in act of what is now 
written. 

The Jewish Chronicle, November 19, 1917: 

With one step the Jewish cause has made a great 
bound forward. The Declaration of his Majesty's 
Government as to the future of Palestine in relation 
to the Jewish people marks a new epoch for our 
race. For the British Government, in accord — it is 
without doubt to be assumed — with the rest of the 
Allies, has declared itself in favour of the setting up 
in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish peo- 
ple, and has undertaken to use its best endeavours to 
facilitate the achievement of that object. Amidst 
all that is so dark and dismal and tragic throughout 
the world there has thus arisen for the Jews a great 
light. The Declaration of the Government, which 
concedes the Zionist position in principle, must have 
effects, far-reaching and vital, upon the future of 
Jews and Judaism. 

The Jewish Express: 

It is a colossal event in Judaism, a new epoch 
in the history of the Jewish people. For the near- 
est parallel we have to go back twenty-five centuries, 
when Cyrus, the King of Persia, issued a proclama- 
tion that Jews might return to Judasa to re-establish 
their national home. . . . Whatever the outcome, 



Press Comment 91 

the fact itself — that the greatest Power in the world 
has recognised the claim of the Jewish people for 
its old homeland — marks a red-letter day in Jewish 
history. It is a wonderful phenomenon for anyone 
possessing an historic sense. . . . But the event pro- 
vokes more than wonder ; it will fill every truly Jew- 
ish heart with delight, for it opens a new horizon for 
the future. . . . The day when the Declaration was 
signed on behalf of the Government will be remem- 
bered by all Jews at all time with gratitude and re- 
spect to the great Power that had the sense of jus- 
tice to support the just claim of a long- wronged 
people. Mingled with the breathless wonderment is 
the feeling of inexpressible gratitude. 

The Jewish Times: 

A thrill of joy will undoubtedly run through the 
heart of national Jewry on reading the great news. 
It will be a source of inspiration for every truly Jew- 
ish soul. . . . The Declaration may rightly be re- 
garded as a beginning of the end of the Jewish 
Goluth, the beginning of the solution of the Jewish 
national problem, the beginning of the restoration 
of the Jews to Palestine. . . . Never in history was 
such an assurance given to the Jewish people. 

The American Jewish Chronicle, New York : 

It is the first time in nearly two thousand years 
of our Diaspora that a Great Power has publicly 
recognised the Jewish nationality and its right to a 
homeland. . . . It is by no means pure accident that 



92 Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

two mighty Anglo-Saxon nations and Governments, 
Great Britain and the United States of America,, 
should be the first among the Great Powers to rec- 
ognise the right of the Jews to a national home- 
land of their own, and thus publicly to recognise the 
nationality of the Jews. If the ancient Jewish mind, 
as it expressed itself in the Bible, ever influenced a 
great race and helped to shape its destinies and poli- 
cies, it was the Anglo-Saxon race. For the past 
400 years the greatest production of Jewish genius, 
the Bible, has been a powerful factor in the life of 
the Anglo-Saxon race, and as soon as the Anglo- 
Saxons freed themselves from medievalism they be- 
gan to treat the Jews living among them with con- 
sideration and fairness, even before they were offi- 
cially emancipated. 

Tlie Jewish jldvocafe, Boston: 

Whether one looks at this wonderful event from a 
religious or from any other point cf view, the fact 
remains the same. The dream of ages, cherished in 
the hearts of millions of people, has come true. . . . 
Now all Jews are Zionists. 

Hatoren (Hebrew), New York: 

We have long waited for such a Declaration, and 
we were certain that it must come. . . . And yet 
when it did come, and we read it and re-read it, we 
felt that Divine afflatus of the soul, and a spirit of 
national rejuvenation has filled us to the brim. 



Press Comment 93 

The Wahrheit, New York : 

Every Zionist victory makes clear to the world 
that only those are entitled to speak in the name of 
the Jewish people who proclaim our nationality. 



r 



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